THE FACE OF DEATH: TERROR BY THE SECURITY POLICE AND SD AGAINST THE POPULATION OF THE GENERAL DISTRICT “MYKOLAIV”
On the basis of recently discovered documents of the archives of the Security Service of Ukraine, in particular materials of archival and investigative cases, trials of Nazi criminals, the author reconstructs the role of SS structures in the genocide in Mykolaiv region. The article examines in detail for the first time the structure and personnel of the Department of Security Police and SD of the General District Mykolaiv and its role in large-scale terror against the civilian population of the region. It was found that most of the staff of the Office were Germans of the Reich, as well as the Volksdeutsche; however, local civilians were recruited for acts of mass terror. The study enumerats the names of command level and rank-and-file personnel directly involved in arrests, tortures, and convoys during mass shootings and demonstrative executions. It also describes the basic recruitment methods as well as the mechanism for establishing a branched network of agents comprised of local collaborators. The main directions of security police and SD terror against the local population have been identified. In the article, the locations and procedures of certain executions of the Jewish and Roma population are specified. The participation of certain representatives of Nazi structures in the region in the mass shootings in Babyn Yar in Kyiv is emphasized. Published here for the first time are the photograph of SS-Sturmbannführer Dr. Leopold Spann, the Second Chief of the Security Police and SD of General District “Mykolaiv”, and portraits of other personnel of the Security Police and SD. The article presents a schematic drawing of the location and layout of the main buildings of the Security Police headquarters in Mykolaiv and schemes of the locations of mass executions. Compiled here is also the list of Sonderkommando members engaged in liquidating the traces of the Security Police and SD crimes. The further routes taken by Security Police and SD employees after their evacuation from Mykolaiv in March of 1944 are described and their further participation is specified.
Keywords: Mykolaiv, Security Police and SD, terror, civilian population, Resistance movement, Jewish and Roma population, the Holocaust, collaboration.