FROM A YOUNG GIRL TO A GENUIN FRAU: STAGES OF GERMAN WOMAN FORMATION WITHIN TOTALITARIAN SOCIETY OF THE THIRD REICH (ANTISEMITIC ASPECT)

  • Oleksandr Davlietov Zaporizhzhya National University
Keywords: Third Reich, Nazism, antisemitism, “Society of German Girls”, “Hitlerjugent”, NSDAP, policy

Abstract

The aim of the article is to reveal the concept of Nazi youth education represented by Adolf Hitler in his program work, the book “Mein Kampf” (“My Struggle”) which became a kind of “Nazi Bible” in the 20th century and would be embodied in everyday life in Germany during 1933–1945. The main features of the formation of national-socialist youth organisation on the territory of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, as well as Nazi politics regarding German girls and women, are analysed.
The First World War, the collapse of Hohenzollerns’ monarchy and the November Revolution of 1918–19 resulted in the opening of political activity to German females. In the 1920s, Nazis made several permissions for women in Germany. For example, females were allowed: to march in a uniform of a khaki colour; to receive medical treatment to those who suffered after fights against political counterparts of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or the NSDAP (“Sisters of The Red Svastika”); to struggle for the social and political integration of women into the national community (“Women League of Struggle”); to work at polling stations; to promote propaganda material etc. community (“Women League of Struggle”); to work at polling stations; to promote propaganda material etc.
Besides, the NSDAP’s breakthrough into the levers of state power resulted in a changing priority goal of B. von Schirach. Yet, on 30 January of 1933, Schirach publicly announced that “from that time “Hitlerjugent” aimed to become the only organisation of German youth”. Moreover, according to him, “Hitlerjugent” was going to take under its personal control all spheres of life of young Germans such as ideology and politics, trade unions, social and cultural life, healthcare etc. under the slogan “Youth must rule youth”.
Conclusions: In general, during 1932–1936, under the auspices of Baldur von Schirach, “Hitlerjugent” succeeded in achieving goals set by the leader of the NSDAP which are the following: all the major German youth organisations were either eliminated or assimilated;“Hitlerjugent” became the only youth organisation of the “Third Reich”; assigned property and functions of state institutions which used to work with the youth during the Weimar Germany (1919–1933); Creation of a new organisation structure of a totalitarian form took place.
A “perfect German woman” had to meet ideological principles, which are Four “K” principles – Кinder, Кirche, Кüche, Kleidung (children, church, kitchen, clothes), and which had been relevant in Germany far before the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. The scientific novelty: The author highlights underknown pages of the history of the NSDAP youth policy in 1922–1945, as well as reveals the main development stages of a German female in a totalitarian society of Nazi state under an anti-Semitic aspect.

Author Biography

Oleksandr Davlietov, Zaporizhzhya National University

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of World History and International Relations of Zaporizhzhya National University. His research interests include the history of the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich, the history of the youth movement under totalitarian regimes.

Published
2020-12-15